Asteraceae  
Eupatorium maculatum

Eupatorium maculatum

Scientific name : Eupatorium maculatum
Origin : Joe-Pye weed is native to North America.
Description : E. maculatum is a coarse perennial that grows to a height of 6 ft. The stems are speckled or blotched with purple. The 2 to 8 inch long leaves are placed in whorls of 3 to 6 leaves around the stem. The flower groupings are generally flattish. The flowers are generally purple and at times range toward shades of off-white. This species is closely related to E. purpureum, which see above for distinguishing characteristics.
Distribution : In addition to the U. S. distribution there is a contiguous Canadian distribution. The species is found in damp areas, especially in calcareous soils.
Blooming period : Fernald[6] provides a blooming date range for much of the speciesí eastern distribution as mid-July to early September.
Importance : While the species is not often mentioned in the North American beekeeping literature, Larson and Shuel[8] rate the speciesí attractiveness to bees as a 4 (highest rating) on a 1 to 4 scale. They also state that the species is a good nectar producer in August and September in both southern and northern Ontario. In nectar secretion, they rate it as a 2 on a 1 to 3 scale, indicating good nectar production that sometimes produces a surplus. It is possible that the early authors who wrote on the subject of bee forage did not distinguish this species as being different than E. purpureum. Both, are after all, often found in wet habitats and look much alike. This may explain why the species has not been given more space in the American beekeeping literature.
Honey : Larson and Shuel[8] indicate that the honey is light amber and has a strong flavor.
Reference : 1 Alex, J. F. and C. M. Switzer. No date. Ontario Weeds. Ontario Agricultural College, University of Guelph. Guelph, ON.
2 Ayers, G. S. and J. R. Harman. 1992. Bee Forage of North America and the Potential for Planting for Bees. In The Hive and the Honey Bee (J. M. Graham, Ed.), Dadant and Sons. Hamilton, IL.
3 Betts, A. D. 1935. Honey from Chicory. The Bee World 16(3):36.
4 Burgett, D. M., B. A. Stringer and L. D. Johnston. 1989. Nectar and Pollen Plants of Oregon and the Pacific Northwest. Honeystone Press. Blodgett, OR.
5 Crane, E. 1975. The flowers honey comes from. In Honey a Comprehensive Survey (Crane, E. ed.). Crane Russak and Company, Inc. New York..
6 Fernald, M. L. 1970. Gray's Manual of Botany (8th edition). D. Van Nostrand Company. New York.
7 Howes, E. N. 1979. Plants and Beekeeping. Faber and Faber. London.
8 Larsson, H. C. and R. Shuel. 1992. Nectar Trees, Shrubs and Herbs of Ontario. (C. D. Scott-Dupree, Ed.). Publication 82. Ontario Minister of Agriculture and Food.
9 Lovell, H. B. 1966. Honey Plants Manual. A Practical Field Handbook for Identifying Honey Flora. A. I. Root Co. Medina, OH.
10 Lovell, J. 1926. Honey Plants of North America. A. I. Root Co. Medina, OH.
11 Milum, V. G. 1957. Illinois Honey and Pollen Plants. Contributions from the Department of Horticulture, University of Illinois, Urbana IL.
12 Morton, J. A. 1964. Honeybee plants of South Florida. Proceedings, Florida State Horicultural Society 77:415-436.
13 Nye, W. P. 1971. Nectar and Pollen Plants of Utah. Utah State University Monograph Series, Volume XVIII, Number 3. Utah State University Press. Logan, UT.
14 Oertel, E. 1939. Honey and Pollen Plants of the United States (U. S. D. A. Circular 554) U. S. Government Printing Office. Washington D. C.
15 Pammel, L. H. and C. M. King. 1930. Honey Plants of Iowa. Iowa Geological Survey Bulletin No. 7. Iowa Geological Survey, State of Iowa. Des Moines.
16 Pellett, F. C. 1978. American Honey Plants. Dadant and Sons, Hamilton, IL.
17 Ramsay, J. 1987. Plants for Beekeeping in Canada and the Northern USA: A Directory of Nectar and Pollen Sources Found in Canada and the Northern USA. International Bee Research Association. London.
18 Root, A. I. 1893. Canada-Thistle Honey. Gleanings in Bee Culture 11:594-595.
19 Royer, F. and R. Dickinson.1999. Weeds of the Northern U. S. and Canada. Lone Pine Publishing, Renton WA and The University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, AL.
20 USDA, NRCS. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA
21 Uva, R. H., J. C. Neal and J. M. Ditomaso. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Comstock Publish Associates--a division of Cornell Unioversity Press. Ithaca, NY.
22 Vansell, G. H. 1941. Nectar and Pollen Plants of California (Bulletin 517). University of California. Berkley.
23 Wilson, W. T., J. O. Moffett and H. D. Harrington. 1958. Nectar and Pollen Plants of Colorado. Bulletin 503-S, Colorado State University Experiment Station. Fort Collins, CO.

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